Nationalisme i Kina: Massive protester mod de japanske djævle

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Kinesisk propaganda / Nationalisme / Politik

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I weekenden var der anti-japanske protester i op mod 85 kinesiske byer. Foran den japanske ambassade i Beijing var der tusinder af demonstranter, som kastede flasker, sten og æg mod bygningen, der var omringet af kampklædte betjente.

Fotografiet ovenover kommer fra Jordan Pouille, hvor du kan se flere fotos fra weekendens demonstration i Beijing.

Der var flere steder sammenstød i weekenden – ifølge nogle skøn op mod 80 byer – mellem politi og demonstranter, og i flere byer blev bygninger, butikker og fabrikker sat i brand. Det var for eksempel japanske restauranter og andre virksomheder med mere eller mindre løs tilknytning til Japan. Japanske biler blev også brændt af på gaderne flere steder.

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Men som du kan se i denne video på Youtube – via BeijingCream som har flere gode artikler om urolighederne – var der store forskelle på demonstrationerne i de forskellige byer. Se også Shanghaiist, der har samlet flere videoer.

Demonstranterne forlangte krig mod Japan. Protesterne kommer på grund af en ubeboet og lille gruppe af øer – der hedder Senkaku på japansk og Diaoyu dao på kinesisk – som Tokyo har kontrol over, men som Beijing hævder er en del af kinesisk territorium.

I dag mandag er protesterne stilnet en smule af. Helt banalt fordi de protesterende kinesiske nationalister har et arbejde at passe. Men de fortsætter. For eksempel vil denne kinesiske Audi forhandler dræbe alle japanere, som der står på banneret. Jeg er ikke helt sikker på, at det tyske hovedkvarter er enig med dem.

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Flere japanske virksomheder har taget forbehold og for eksempel nogle restauranter, som jeg er gået forbi i dag i Beijing, har tapet Japan (日本) over, så man ikke kan se det, og 7-11 – der i øvrigt er japansk ejet – har fjernet alle japanske produkter fra hylderne. Opdtering mandag aften – lokalregeringen i Beijing har nu opfordret japanske virksomheder til at holde lukket i to dage. Læs mere på Financial Times og Reuters.

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Du kan se alle artikler om nationalisme på Kinablog. Og her får du en aktuel opsamling.

China Digital Times har flere gode opsamlinger og fotos her, her og her. CDT har også oversat en artikel fra Ming Pao, der peger på myndighedernes rolle, og hvordan civilklædte betjente dirigerede optøjerne foran ambassaden i Beijing, hvor de forklarede reglerne for demonstranterne:

We all know that everyone is very angry, but there are a lot of foreign media up ahead. This is a time to demonstrate the quality of Chinese citizens. Do not carry bottles of water or anything like that. Remember to sing the national anthem. Everyone must take part in chanting slogans. Facial expressions are to be kept serious—don’t laugh when you shouldn’t be laughing. And don’t play with your cell phones.

Global Voices har oversat kommentarer fra QQ og Weibo som blandt andet denne, der også peger på de kinesiske myndigheders indflydelse.

A friend told me during a meal that we received the same protest call message from different alumni groups via QQ. I asked him about the background of the senders. He said one is working for the land revenue bureau, one is working for a research center in a military corporation.

Tea Leaf Nation har oversat kommentarer fra nettet, hvor flere også tager afstand fra de voldsomme optøjer:

He Jiong (@何炅), a celebrity TV personality, in a tweet that received over 200,000 mostly supportive comments and retweets, wrote, “Patriotism is a very noble word. For those compatriots who smash cars, who eat at Japanese restaurants then curse and don’t pay, who assault foreigners for no reason in front of their homes, don’t degrade the word patriotism! The [Diaoyu] island is definitely ours, but the dignity of our country is also in our hands!”

Feichangdao har flere gode ting og har blandt andet oversat denne kommentar fra den nationalistiske tabloid avis Global Times:

On September 14, 2012, the state-sponsored Global Times publish an op-ed by Shen Yi (沈逸 – a “scholar” at Fudan University) asking: “Besides ‘Boycotting Japanese Goods,’ What Else Can We Do?” (除了“抵制日货”,我们还能做什么). An excerpt:
As the Diaoyu Island incident heats up, calls to “boycott Japanese goods” are on the rise, and this is a projection of the deeply rooted historical memory of the pain and suffering of the Chinese people.
. . . .
As for China, from the government to the people, we might as well establish a Japanese tycoon blacklist, and with the assistance of the China’s immense Internet data-mining capabilities, find out those who are lurking behind the curtain, and not allow groups that provide monetary support to provactiave foreign policies or those double-dealers that make money in China and support right-wingers in Japan to obtain profit from China’s market or get national treatment.

Imgur har flere fotos af protesterne fra rundt om i Kina. Se også Wall Street Journals Kinablog, der har denne fotoserie.

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China Media project oversat en leder fra forsiden af Folkets Dagblad mandag, der opfordrer til “rationel patriotisme”:

Protection of sovereign national territory of course requires fierce assertion, but at the same time it demands that we act in a civilized manner and abide by the law. In today’s China, we are far from the era of weakness and poverty, no longer a China carved up by others at will. Protecting national interests, acting in a civilized manner and giving priority to rule of law, these are the marks of a powerful country and crucial guarantees of national revival. We must use civilization and rule of law to gather the force of patriotism, transforming our ardent love for our nation into the driving force of a powerful country. In today’s globalized world, we should let the world see a China that is developing peacefully, in which governance is progressing and the character of the people is rising. Therefore, safeguarding our national sovereignty and territorial integrity, and protecting the dignity of our people, requires that we act in a civilized manner and abide by rule of law, remaining cool and calm, expressing our patriotism in a legal and orderly way.

Rectified.name og historiker Jeremiah Jenne skriver om nationalismen i historisk kontekst:

This is the worst kind of dispute because everybody’s right and nobody’s right. Japan and China have more than their share of nationalist nitwits, but nobody actually lives on these rocks and it’s not like you can just go and ask the goats what they’re feeling. (Apparently, the moles tried to hold a referendum back in ’98 but then backed down after Beijing threatened to bombard the island with missiles and large snakes.)

Frankly, every time I hear the phrase “history says…” I want to try and remove my own corneas with a shrimp fork. History “says” a lot of things. For example, China has never ever invaded another country. The PLA did not invade Tibet in 1951 because Tibet has been part of China since at least the time of the Yuan which was not a Mongolian Empire but a Chinese Dynasty. And China didn’t try to invade Japan in 1274 and 1281 because that was Kublai Khan who was, you know, a Mongol and not Chinese.

History is especially tricky when you take relatively recent concepts and constructions like the nation state and national sovereignty and apply them retroactively.

Spiegel skriver i et intervew med Eberhard Sandschneider, at det på trods af den skingre tone lige nu næppe ender med decideret krig. Men der er ingen nem løsning:

Einer der beteiligten Staaten müsste in diesem Konflikt zurückdrehen, doch das wird keiner tun. Was wir derzeit beobachten, ist ein klassischer Hochschaukler, der beachtliche Risiken birgt. In dieser Krise gibt es keine gute Lösung. Alle Beteiligten beanspruchen die Eilande mit Maximalforderungen, von denen sie so schnell nicht mehr runter können.

Wall Street Journal peger på, at en økonomisk krig mellem de to lande skam også kan få alvorlige konsekvenser:

An economic war between China and Japan could have serious consequences, as Asia’s two largest economies are integrally tied together in trade and investment. Total trade between the two: $345 billion.

The economic impact from the spat between Japan and China over disputed islands that lie between the two nations is on the rise. Violent riots in China forced Japanese retailers and factories to shutter. Stocks tied to Japan fell sharply Monday on the news.

Globe and Mail citerer den amerikanske forsvarsminister Leon Panetta, der frygter for en egentlig krig mellem Japan og Kina:

U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta said he was worried the growing tensions between China and Japan could result in a war that would “have the potential of expanding.”

The U.S. is bound by treaty to defend Japan in the event it is attacked. China and Japan are the world’s second and third-largest economies.

“A misjudgment on one side or the other could result in violence, and could result in conflict,” Mr. Panetta said in Tokyo at the start of a tour that will take him to Beijing this week for talks with senior leaders.

Canyu skriver, at selvom der er demonstrationer, så skal man passe på med, hvad man demonstrerer mod. Nogle brugte anledningen til at konfrontere Kinas Kommunistparti og opfordre til demokratiske reformer, som Global Voices også fortælller. Dårlig ide. De blev tilbageholdt:

参与2012年9月16日讯)今天上午,反日游行在深圳繁华街道华强北、市民中心等许多地方如火如荼进行,深圳民主人士姜卫东、子元等人按耐不住追求自由、民主、人权和平等的急迫心情,也跟着游行队伍打出自由、民主、人权、宪政等横幅,结果被便衣国保发现,于中午一点左右被抓捕,至今仍无任何消息,电话一直打不通。

Chinageeks og Charles Custer sammenligner de anti-japanske med jasmin-protesterne i Kina i 2011 (eller manglen på samme) der var rettet mod den kinesiske regering, og hvor der derfor var bunker af betjente og stort set ingen demonstranter:

But anyone who has followed domestic protests in China for even a short period of time should be clear on the fact that if it wants to, the government has the means to totally shut these protests down. They may have sent in the tanks back in ’89, but these days there are legions of trained riot police, People’s Armed Police, and other anti-protest forces. Every major city has them. If you think that China doesn’t have the law enforcement capability to totally shut down these riots, you’re delusional. If these were anti-government protests, not only would they not have carried on this long, but half the people in those photos would be in jail by now. Before the Jasmine protests (for example) police nationwide were literally arresting people just for considering going to the protests, not to mention people police thought might go.

The Global Times writes this morning in an op-ed condemning the violence:

There is no reason to suspect that the government is turning a blind eye to the violence seen over the weekend. This is simply the view of those who make a habit of criticizing the government.

Really? Then where is China’s police force? Even if all the riot police are busy doing traffic stops or something, I’d think if nothing else the chengguan could handle something like this pretty easily (and we all know how much they hate it when people dirty up city sidewalks).

The evidence that China is turning a blind eye to these protests is overwhelming. The absence of China’s police forces is glaringly obvious, especially in contrast to the vast numbers that turn up and start jumping in front of lenses and smashing cameras whenever a protest China’s government doesn’t like is scheduled to take place. China has clearly shown it is more than capable of keeping anti-Japan protests under control if it wants to. The obvious conclusion now — the only conclusion now — is that it doesn’t want to.

Skribent

Hurtige klik fra Kina af Kim Rathcke Jensen. Jeg er journalist og BA i kinesisk. Jeg bor i Beijing, hvor jeg arbejder som Politikens korrespondent i Kina og Asien.

1 Kommentar

  1. sinofil siger

    Prøv lige at skille skidt fra kanel.

    Man skal da ikke have en Phd for at gennemskue at der er tale om et mindretal , der udnytter situationen som ventil til at få afløb for en general frustration over samfundet.

    Der er da ikke meget nationalister over uromagere, der smadder biler og butikker, som ironisk nok i de fleste tilfælde er ejet af deres egne landsmænd.

    At der så er tale om store protester mod Japan Kina, det er korrekt, men det er et mindretal som griber til yderlighederne, selvom du giver indtrykket af noget andet.

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